Tag Archives: dysgraphia

Why Gifted Preschoolers Should Be Taught Handwriting Early (And With The Best Strategies!)

 

 

guillaume-de-germain-329206Gifted children are identified by their asynchronous development.   The three year-old that can read, the two year-old that can play a song on the piano after hearing it once at music class, the four year-old that can complete his sister’s math homework…from second grade! These children have one or more advanced areas of skill that classify them as gifted.  One of the skills that rarely emerges early and advanced in the gifted population is handwriting.  More often, gifted children have problems with handwriting. Some are just sloppy, some produce illegible products even after trying their best.

A few theories exist to explain this phenomenon:  gifted children are more concerned with expression and ignore handwriting lessons, their typical motor development doesn’t keep up with their advanced cognitive skill progression and they give up, or perhaps a gifted student with poor handwriting has an undiagnosed motor and learning disabilities.

I am going to suggest an additional explanation:  gifted children are not given effective early pre-writing instruction and are often taught to write using strategies that create confusion, boredom or frustration, turning a fast learner into an underachiever.  Gifted kids like novelty, complexity and intensity.  Tracing a dotted-line “A” over and over isn’t any of those things.  Gifted children often remain so focused on their passions that it is easier to let them go and shine in their chosen areas than to make handwriting fun and appealing.

Yes, it is true that children with advanced cognitive skills could have average or below-average motor skills that don’t allow them to independently write a complex original story.  Writing details down may take too long for their quick minds, or they need to use letters they don’t yet have the skills to execute.  A child with an amazing imagination and vocabulary may find standard writing drills dull in comparison to the creative process.  Gifted children may even be averse to the unavoidable failure inherent in practice that leads to mastery.

What can be done?

  • Good pre-writing instruction is essential to build the foundational motor control and spatial skills.  This includes teaching grasp rather than waiting for it to develop, purposely building two-handed coordination and drawing into play,  and using other pre-writing tasks such as mazes, puzzles and tracing/dot-to-dot (not for letters, for drawing).  See Why Dot-To-Dot Letter Practice Slows Down Writing Speed and Legibility to understand why dots aren’t a great strategy for any child.  Learning to draw balloons, birthday cakes and Christmas trees is fun.  It is also a great way to practice writing the curves and intersecting angles that letters require.
  • Use multi-sensory, multi-media methods to develop pre-writing and handwriting skills.  Many gifted children love sensory-based experiences.  Their natural drive for intensity and complexity can be satisfied when letters are made from pretzel sticks or Play-Dough.
  • Create a fun, open environment for learning, in which challenge is expected and success is both celebrated and beside the point.  If children are taught that they are expected to know all the answers since they are gifted, exploration can be suppressed.  If they learn that failure is anticipated and shame-free, it allows them to try again and invent solutions to the problems they face.
  • Harness the skills a gifted child possesses to advance their handwriting development.  Children that have great spatial awareness notice letter formation similarities and proportion rules.  They transform an “F” into an “E” and chop two vertical lines in half to make an “H”.  Children in love with language can use fun mnemonic devices or little “stories” that help them form letters correctly.  When the letter “S” starts as a mini “C” and then “turns around and goes back home” they remember the formation of this tricky letter more easily than copying or tracing alone.

As an occupational therapist, I use the Learning Without Tears program (formerly Handwriting Without Tears).  The materials are high-quality, the learning progression is developmental and builds one skill on top of the previous skill, and the early levels are more sensory-based than most writing programs.  See Can HWT’s Flip Crayons Transform Pencil Grasp in Preschoolers? and Why Do You Start (Uppercase) Letters at the Top? Speed and Accuracy for some HWT strategies that really work.

If you are the parent of a gifted child, or if you teach gifted preschoolers, please share your best strategies to support handwriting here.!!!

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Young Children With Dysgraphia Need Better Handwriting Instruction, Not Just Technology.

The diagnosis of dysgraphia is so vague that I almost hesitate to write about it.  The reason I am dipping a toe into these messy waters?  Almost every psychologist that gives a child this diagnosis recommends abandoning handwriting in favor of tablets and speech recognition programs.  I feel strongly that this does young children a huge disservice.  They will still need to write to survive at school and in life.  There are ways to help them accomplish this without sending the message that writing is hopeless.

When I meet dysgraphic children that clearly have difficulties with the control and placement aspects of handwriting, I know two things:  they are likely to need instruction in posture/paper positioning, and they probably did not have handwriting instruction in a developmental order.  Control (lines that don’t connect, overshoot, get re-written, etc.) can be fixed with some of Handwriting Without Tears’ best materials, including the magic of gray block paper.

Older kids, those in second or third grade, sometimes balk at being asked to write capital letters in those little boxes.  They don’t realize that the box borders and the uniformity they provide will automatically help them grade their control and build uniform sizing.  Really.

Adding some work on learning the  correct start/stop sequence with frequently used letters such as “e”, “a”, and “t” can make a big difference right away.  The number of children that have no idea that an “a” isn’t made with a circle and a short line is almost unreal.  Give them directions that don’t confuse them, use double-lined paper, and see progress occur.  Not a cure, but it can make a paragraph legible for the first time in years.

Many kids with dysgraphia also have issues with postural control, body awareness, and dyspraxia.  They do not sit in a position that gives them optimal pencil and paper control.  And they have never been taught that it matters.  Their teachers may not know the importance of posture/placement, or they assume that these children should have learned about it in preschool or kindergarten.  Not.  Being direct about the how and the why, and firm about not writing until they are physically ready to write can make a huge difference with dysgraphic kids.

A word about mastery.  A diagnosis of dysgraphia tells me that a child has been struggling with writing for a while.  When a dysgraphic child makes progress, they need to experience it fully and take joy in it.  Their peers felt this in preschool and kindergarten.  Give them the same chance.

Being successful hasn’t been emphasized enough in OT.  Mastery is a wonderful feeling, and sometimes we move kids to the next level before they have fully received the blessings of mastery.  Even if activities move forward, always keep a mastery task on board.  Start the session with it, use it on an “off day”, when a child really needs the chance to feel good, or end a session on a high note.  I never let the opportunity for a mastery moment slip by.  Ever!